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2024 USMDO

The US Medicine & Disease Olympiad

Recommended Textbooks:

Campbell Biology (Urry et al.)

Essential Cell Biology (Alberts et al.)

Textbooks on Human Physiology and Human Disease are recommended but not required.

USMDO Topics


Cell Biology & Genetics

1. Macromolecules

2. The Structures of the Cell

3. Cell Membrane

4. Passive and Active Transport

5. Metabolism and Enzymes

6. Cellular Respiration

7. Cell Signaling

8. Mitosis

9. Meiosis

10. Mendelian Genetics

11. Chromosomes

12. DNA

13. Replication

14. Transcription

15. Translation

16. Gene Regulation

17. Viruses

18. Bacteria

19. Biotechnology

20. Cell Death

21. Cancer

22. Stem Cells


Human Physiology

1. Organization of the Human Body

2. Homeostasis

3. The Digestive System

4. The Circulatory System

5. The Respiratory System

6. The Immune System

7. The Excretory System

8. The Endocrine System

9. The Reproductive System

10. The Nervous System

11. The Muscular System

12. The Skeletal System

13. The Integumentary System


Human Disease

1. Cancer

2. Genetic Diseases

3. Cardiovascular Diseases

4. Blood Diseases

5. Lung Diseases

6. Gastrointestinal Diseases

7. Kidney Diseases

8. Reproductive Diseases

9. Skin Diseases

10. Bone and Joint Diseases

11. Muscle Diseases

12. Nervous System Diseases

13. Endocrine System Diseases

14. Immunologic Diseases

15. Infectious Diseases

Sample USMDO Questions


Cell Biology & Genetics

1. Which of the following macromolecules is not a polymer?

     a. starch

     b. cellulose

     c. protein

     d. DNA

     e. phospholipid

2. Where are the large and small subunits of ribosomes assembled?

     a. rough endoplasmic reticulum

     b. cytosol

     c. Golgi apparatus

     d. nucleolus

     e. smooth endoplasmic reticulum

3. What is the motor protein that is associated with microtubules in the flagella?

     a. flagellin

     b. dynein

     c. kinesin

     d. actin

     e. myosin

4. The uptake of which substance into cells requires receptor-mediated endocytosis?

     a. glucose

     b. fructose

     c. LDL

     d. MHC

     e. testosterone

5. How many NADH molecules are produced per acetyl-CoA in the citric acid cycle?

     a. 1

     b. 2

     c. 3

     d. 4

     e. 6

6. Which of the following does not function as a second messenger?

     a. cAMP

     b. inositol triphosphate (IP3)

     c. diacylglycerol (DAG)

     d. sodium ion (Na+)

     e. calcium ion (Ca2+)

7. Which of the following is not a difference between mitosis and meiosis?

     a. separation of chromatids

     b. formation of tetrads

     c. crossing over

     d. synapsis

     e. formation of chiasmata

8. Which enzyme untwists the double-stranded DNA and separates the two strands?

     a. ligase

     b. primase

     c. topoisomerase

     d. DNA Polymerase

     e. helicase

9. What is the gel electrophoresis of mRNA followed by labeled-probe hybridization called?

     a. Southern blotting

     b. Northern blotting

     c. Western blotting

     d. Eastern blotting

     e. in situ hybridization

10. What is one method of gene duplication in sexual organisms?

     a. reverse transcription

     b. genomic imprinting

     c. nondisjunction

     d. translocation

     e. unequal crossing-over


Human Physiology

1. Which of the following is not a connective tissue?

     a. tendon

     b. bone

     c. blood

     d. adipose tissue

     e. glia

2. Which water-soluble vitamin is needed by pregnant woman to prevent birth defects?

     a. thiamine

     b. riboflavin

     c. niacin

     d. folic acid

     e. ascorbic acid

3. Which cell secretes pepsinogen in the stomach?

     a. parietal cell

     b. chief cell

     c. mucous cell

     d. goblet cell

     e. acinar cell

4. Which organ or tissue synthesizes erythropoietin, the hormone that stimulates red blood cell production?

     a. kidney

     b. liver

     c. bone marrow

     d. pancreas

     e. heart

5. Which is by far the major mechanism of carbon dioxide transport in the blood?

     a. bound to hemoglobin

     b. converted to bicarbonate ion and hydrogen ion

     c. dissolved in plasma

     d. as gas bubbles

     e. converted to glucose

6. Which of the following is not a phagocyte?

     a. neutrophil

     b. mast cell

     c. macrophage

     d. eosinophil

     e. dendritic cell

7. Which of the following hormone or compound has the least effect on blood pressure?

     a. cortisol

     b. epinephrine

     c. angiotensin

     d. renin

     e. aldosterone

8. In which structure are sperm stored after their maturation in the testes?

     a. seminiferous tubules

     b. epididymis

     c. vas deferens

     d. seminal vesicle

     e. prostate gland

9. Which of the following structures is or are formed from ectoderm?

     a. dermis of skin

     b. lining of digestive tract

     c. lining of respiratory tracts

     d. skeleton

     e. teeth

10. What is the neurotransmitter secreted by the motor neurons at the neuromuscular junction?

     a. GABA

     b. acetylcholine

     c. glutamate

     d. norepinephrine

     e. nitric oxide


Human Disease

1. Which of the following bacterial diseases does not involve a G protein?

     a. cholera

     b. tetanus

     c. pertussis

     d. botulism

     e. diarrhea caused by E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin

2. Which of the following is not the result of aneuploidy?

     a. Down syndrome

     b. Klinefelter syndrome

     c. William syndrome

     d. Turner syndrome

     e. Edwards syndrome

3. Which of the following is a proto-oncogene?

     a. ras

     b. p53

     c. p21

     d. BRCA1

     e. APC

4. Which hormone is involved in diabetes insipidus?

     a. insulin

     b. glucagon

     c. vasopressin

     d. thyroxine

     e. oxytocin

5. Which compound causes the symptoms of both inflammation and allergy?

     a. cytokine

     b. histamine

     c. pyrogen

     d. prostaglandin

     e. interferon



Cell Biology & Genetics 1 e, 2 d, 3 b, 4 c, 5 c, 6 d, 7 a, 8 e, 9 b, 10 e

Human Physiology 1 e, 2 d, 3 b, 4 a, 5 b, 6 b, 7 a, 8 b, 9 e, 10 b

Human Disease 1 b, 2 c, 3 a, 4 c, 5 b

Additional Information:

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